To study the effect of EPA-DHA and ALA on major cardiovascular events, four different enriched margarines were developed by Unilever R&D, Vlaardingen, The Netherlands:
All four margarines were similar in the concentration of linoleic acid and in taste, smell and appearance, as thoroughly tested by panels. Patients were asked to avoid the use of fish oil capsules or other omega-3 supplements during the trial.
How much margarine did the participants consume?
The margarine was used on bread and not for frying and baking. On average, the participants ate 4.3 slices of bread per day, each spread was 5.1 grams of margarine. So with an estimated consumption of approx. 20 grams of margarine per day, this composition would ensure an increase in the daily intake of EPA-DHA of on average about 400 mg (equivalent to intake from approximately 2 servings of fatty fish per week) and the intake of ALA by 2 grams per day.